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#1 2012-01-14 23:31:24

poplar girl
Administrator
From: Athabasca, AB, Canada
Registered: 2011-06-30
Posts: 3159

Topic 2: Genetics Terms and Definitions

I have though a little bit about how to present this topic. I would love to find a way to make this part of learning genetics more interesting but I am at a bit of a lose as to how to do so. As well, I know that members of our group are at very different levels of understanding.

As references in learning the terms commonly used in discussions of genetics:
- Hutt includes a glossary of terms pgs 549-557.
- This website in general seems to be current and fairly inclusive in regards to chicken genetics: http://edelras.nl/chickengenetics/theory.html

Everyone should try to understand what is meant by terms such as:

Allele - Susan
Autosomal - Susan
Chromosome - Susan
Dominant - Susan
Gene - Skeffling Lavender Farm
Genotype - Skeffling Lavender Farm
Hetrozygote (Hetrozygous) - Skeffling Lavender Farm
Homozygote (Homozygous) - Skeffling Lavender Farm
Hybrid vigor - poplar girl
Inhibitor - poplar girl
Inbreeding - poplar girl
Line breeding - poplar girl
Linkage - nuthatch333
Locus (Loci) - nuthatch333
Modifier or Modifying gene - nuthatch333
Mutation - nuthatch333
Outcross - maggiesdad
Phenotype - maggiesdad
Quantitative - maggiesdad
Recessive - maggiesdad
Recombination - ChestnutRidge
Sex linked - ChestnutRidge
Spiral breeding - ChestnutRidge

If someone thinks of others we can add them to the list. Terms added to the list in italics ;)

:please: Don't be scared. :nervous: We can work through the list of terms one by one if that is the best way to help everyone ensure they understand. If later on someone forgets what a word means that way you could come back to the list. Hopefully we can also come up with some examples to help it make sense to everyone :thumbs:

How we go about this topic and how long we spend on it is completely up to the members!

I await further instruction. :chook:

Okay, as per member suggestion...Beside each term above I have posted the name of the member who will research and post a definition for that word. Further discussion about those definitions is welcome at that point to make sure we all understand. As you can see we need more volunteers to take the list of terms =D
At the end of it all we will have created a dictionary for future reference.


Raising red cuckoo (marraduna) Euskal Oiloak and self blue (lavender) & black Belgian Bearded d'Uccles.

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2012-01-14 23:31:24

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#2 2012-01-14 23:35:59

Maggiesdad
Moderator
From: Louisa County, Virginia
Registered: 2011-10-05
Posts: 1980

Re: Topic 2: Genetics Terms and Definitions

Will spiral breeding figure into what we'll be doing?

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#3 2012-01-14 23:45:37

poplar girl
Administrator
From: Athabasca, AB, Canada
Registered: 2011-06-30
Posts: 3159

Re: Topic 2: Genetics Terms and Definitions

MD...after googling "spiral breeding" to figure out what it is I think the answer is YES. It looks facinating and potentially a very effective way to breed poultry. I am adding it to the list of terms/definitions we should discuss =D

Good lord...we are going to need ipf....soon I fear.


Raising red cuckoo (marraduna) Euskal Oiloak and self blue (lavender) & black Belgian Bearded d'Uccles.

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#4 2012-01-14 23:51:58

Maggiesdad
Moderator
From: Louisa County, Virginia
Registered: 2011-10-05
Posts: 1980

Re: Topic 2: Genetics Terms and Definitions

:surfing:  ...Because that's another facet I haven't gotten a grip on yet.  :oops:

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#5 2012-01-15 01:43:41

Susan
Administrator
From: Saskatoon, Sask, Canada
Registered: 2011-06-28
Posts: 2540

Re: Topic 2: Genetics Terms and Definitions

How about for this topic, we create our own "dictionary". Each of us pick a few terms and  write as concisely a description as possible? PG, you can assign me 4 terms if you like.

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#6 2012-01-15 01:47:15

skeffling lavender farm
Administrator
From: Wiarton, ON, Canada
Registered: 2011-06-17
Posts: 2720
Website

Re: Topic 2: Genetics Terms and Definitions

Great idea Susan.  I just printed up those glossary pages (and the symbols pages right before)  so I can get stuck in.  You can assign me some too if you think that's the way to go.  I was going it them all myself anyway to help me learn.   :duh:

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#7 2012-01-15 02:09:15

ipf
Member
From: Salt Spring Island, BC, Canada
Registered: 2011-08-29
Posts: 168

Re: Topic 2: Genetics Terms and Definitions

I think that's a really good idea.
I looked at the glossary on that site listed above, and, while most were good, there were a (very) few that were either ambiguous, confusing or inaccurate.
So, why don't we start with their definitions, and add terms that you folks want to see defined (together with your definitions, if you have them). I see my role here as mainly guidance and correction - is that what you folks want? If so, I can add definitions where needed, amend the defs I think are not good, and we can go from there.

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#8 2012-01-15 02:22:29

Susan
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From: Saskatoon, Sask, Canada
Registered: 2011-06-28
Posts: 2540

Re: Topic 2: Genetics Terms and Definitions

that would be perfect ipf!

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#9 2012-01-15 14:58:08

poplar girl
Administrator
From: Athabasca, AB, Canada
Registered: 2011-06-30
Posts: 3159

Re: Topic 2: Genetics Terms and Definitions

Good idea about dividing up the list Susan! Hopefully we get a few more volunteers to take on a few words =D
Guidance and correction are exactly what we need ipf, the blind leading the blind could get pretty messy otherwise ;)

I will put names beside word's up top as people offer to help build the dictionary if that will be okay? At the end maybe we can make a nice clean post with all the definitions.

There are already some threads on this site with some good information and discussion on a few of these topics so feel free to reference them or other sites when posting your definition.


Raising red cuckoo (marraduna) Euskal Oiloak and self blue (lavender) & black Belgian Bearded d'Uccles.

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#10 2012-01-15 15:45:23

nuthatch333
Member
From: Red Deer, Alberta
Registered: 2011-11-15
Posts: 29

Re: Topic 2: Genetics Terms and Definitions

PG you can put me down for the next four definitions.

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#11 2012-01-15 16:03:26

poplar girl
Administrator
From: Athabasca, AB, Canada
Registered: 2011-06-30
Posts: 3159

Re: Topic 2: Genetics Terms and Definitions

nuthatch333 wrote:

PG you can put me down for the next four definitions.

:jumping: :thumbs:


Raising red cuckoo (marraduna) Euskal Oiloak and self blue (lavender) & black Belgian Bearded d'Uccles.

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#12 2012-01-15 16:29:49

Maggiesdad
Moderator
From: Louisa County, Virginia
Registered: 2011-10-05
Posts: 1980

Re: Topic 2: Genetics Terms and Definitions

oooh - what am I getting myself into? Put me down for the next four...  :chairhide:

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#13 2012-01-15 17:16:00

poplar girl
Administrator
From: Athabasca, AB, Canada
Registered: 2011-06-30
Posts: 3159

Re: Topic 2: Genetics Terms and Definitions

Maggiesdad wrote:

oooh - what am I getting myself into? Put me down for the next four...  :chairhide:

:cheer: :thanks:


Raising red cuckoo (marraduna) Euskal Oiloak and self blue (lavender) & black Belgian Bearded d'Uccles.

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#14 2012-01-16 01:47:32

skeffling lavender farm
Administrator
From: Wiarton, ON, Canada
Registered: 2011-06-17
Posts: 2720
Website

Re: Topic 2: Genetics Terms and Definitions

I will do these tomorrow when hubby is at work, I can't concentrate with noise and distraction, not a multi-tasker :banginghead:  Oh and the strawberry wine and rhubarb wine we spent the day bottling (and testing) isn't helping :chairhide:

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#15 2012-01-16 01:57:43

Maggiesdad
Moderator
From: Louisa County, Virginia
Registered: 2011-10-05
Posts: 1980

Re: Topic 2: Genetics Terms and Definitions

you would have had more bottles if you had done less testing! :happycrowd"

:wine:

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#16 2012-01-16 02:16:57

skeffling lavender farm
Administrator
From: Wiarton, ON, Canada
Registered: 2011-06-17
Posts: 2720
Website

Re: Topic 2: Genetics Terms and Definitions

You are right there!  It's potent stuff! :wine:

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#17 2012-01-19 02:26:30

Maggiesdad
Moderator
From: Louisa County, Virginia
Registered: 2011-10-05
Posts: 1980

Re: Topic 2: Genetics Terms and Definitions

Outcross - The act of breeding together animals that are members of the same breed, variety or strain, but not closely related in pedigree.
                 Or the progeny of an outcross.  Outcrossing is one of the three main types of breeding, the other two being linebreeding and
                 inbreeding.


Phenotype - Phenotype is the physical appearance of the chicken. It is what we 'see', but it also includes structure (body shape and size),
                    function (egg laying abilities, meat qualities, fertility) and behavior (friendliness, self preservation skills).  The phenotype along
                    with the pedigree are the main methods of judging the chicken's genetic input.


Quantitative - Of, relating to, or susceptible of measurement.  A quantitative trait is a phenotype that is influenced by multiple genes.


Recessive - Of, or pertaining to, a gene (or allele) whose phenotypic expression is masked by a dominant gene (or allele).


:surfing:

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#18 2012-01-19 02:55:43

poplar girl
Administrator
From: Athabasca, AB, Canada
Registered: 2011-06-30
Posts: 3159

Re: Topic 2: Genetics Terms and Definitions

Hybrid vigor The extra vigor, exceeding that of their parent stocks, frequently shown by the hybrids from the crossing of such genetically dissimilar parents as different species, breeds, strains, or inbred lines. It may be expressed as more rapid growth, larger size, greater viability, or otherwise.

Heterosis. Synonymous with hybrid vigor.

Hutt, Genetics of the Fowl (pg 552-553)

Previous thread on this topic: http://forums.euskaloiloas.com/viewtopic.php?id=332


Inhibiting gene. A gene that prevents the expression of another gene. See also epistasis.
Mosby's Medical Dictionary, 8th edition. © 2009, Elsevier.

Epistasis. An interaction between genes at different loci in which one gene masks or suppresses the expression of the other.

The masking of the phenotypic effect of alleles at one gene by alleles of another gene. A gene is said to be epistatic when its presence suppresses the effect of a gene at another locus. Epistatic genes are sometimes called inhibiting genes because of their effect on other genes which are described as hypostatic.

Epistasis can be contrasted with dominance, which is an interaction between alleles at the same gene locus. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Epistasis

Inbreeding The act of mating closely related individuals.

Line breeding Selective inbreeding to perpetuate certain desired qualities or characteristics in a strain of livestock.

Article on line breeding and inbreeding: http://bowlingsite.mcf.com/genetics/inbreeding.html

But mostly I want to read about Spiral Breeding since maggiesdad introduced me to the topic ;)


Raising red cuckoo (marraduna) Euskal Oiloak and self blue (lavender) & black Belgian Bearded d'Uccles.

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#19 2012-01-20 02:25:07

skeffling lavender farm
Administrator
From: Wiarton, ON, Canada
Registered: 2011-06-17
Posts: 2720
Website

Re: Topic 2: Genetics Terms and Definitions

Gene
A unit of heredity, a section of DNA found on a chromosome that codes for a particular protein.  The interaction of that protein in the cell and the environment influences the development of a character and sometimes controls it completely.

Genotype
The genetic makeup of the organism that includes genes without visible effect, along with those revealed by the phenotype.   Genotype may refer to the organism’s whole genetic make-up or just a single pair of genes.

Heterozygote (Heterozygous)
A heterozygote is an organism that has two different forms of the same genes (called alleles) in a particular locus on a pair of homologous (or matching) chromosomes.  When gametes are made (for reproduction) the gamete may have either type of allele, so either version may be passed to offspring. 

Heterozygous means to be carrying two types of these alleles (versions of a gene). 

Homozygote
A homozygote is an organism that has two copies of the same gene (or allele) in a particular locus on a pair of homologous (or matching) chromosomes.  When gametes are made (for reproduction) the gametes all have one type of allele so only one type of gene may be passed to offspring.   The allele or gene in question may be a dominant or recessive gene.

Homozygous means to be carrying two copies of one type of allele (a single version of a gene). 

And Hutts Genetics of the Fowl (pg551-2)

http://edelras.nl/chickengenetics/theory.html (very basic from definitions from there, Hutts was better but had less molecular emphasis)  ;)

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#20 2012-01-22 21:55:17

ChestnutRidge
Member
From: Western Virginia
Registered: 2011-07-05
Posts: 251
Website

Re: Topic 2: Genetics Terms and Definitions

Okay, I'll take the final three.

recombination: The occurrence of progeny having combinations of traits different from the combinations seen in the parents (due to crossing-over and independent segregation of chromosomes). (Reference)  In recombination, cross-overs exchange alleles between homologous chromosomes during meiosis in both parents. This is what allows for much of the genetic variation in the offspring of a population in each generation. (Answers.com, Overly technical article, Second overly technical article)
     meiosis: The process of two consecutive cell divisions that produces haploid sex cells and spores from diploid progenitor cells. Meiosis results in four daughter cells, each with a haploid set of unreplicated chromosomes. (Reference)

sex linkage: A linkage involving a locus on the X or Z chromosome. In certain crosses sex-linked traits manifest themselves only in the heterogametic sex. (Reference)  In many organisms, sex of the individual is determined genetically by the presence or absence of particular sex-chromosomes. For example: in humans, XX is female, XY is male; in chickens, ZW is female, ZZ is male (ie the male is homogametic not the female). (Reference)
     Everything you want to know about sex-linkage on this BYC forum thread

spiral breeding aka rotational line breeding:  See this article by Robert Blosl
     From http://www.pathfindersfarm.com/Spiral.html:

Many breeders of purebred poultry use line breeding with their flocks. A more complicated, yet more
effective way to line breed is to Spiral Breed. To do this, maintain three lines - Line A, Line B, Line C.

For Season 1, mate all males to females of their own line. Daughters of Season 1 are added as breeders to
the line that produced them (they stay with their mothers.) Sons are compared to their fathers for quality.

In Season 2, mate the C line male to the B line females, mate the B line male to the A line females, mate the A
line male to the C line females - rotating them.

Females from Season 2 are added to the line that produced them alongside their mothers. The best son of the
C line male mated to the B line females is kept and mated to the B line females; same for other matings, old
cocks are retired.

Once the system is up and running, males are used twice, then retired in preference to a son. Males rotate one
line over every other year. This gives you a year of outcross and a year of line breeding.

Spiral Breeding is a very old system. There is one breeder and his family that reputedly maintained a line of
Rhode Island Reds for 90 years on this system, he and his family kept five matings each year.

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#21 2012-01-22 22:33:10

poplar girl
Administrator
From: Athabasca, AB, Canada
Registered: 2011-06-30
Posts: 3159

Re: Topic 2: Genetics Terms and Definitions

Thanks ChestnutRidge!!

Just Susan who hasn't found time to do her "homework" yet ;)

I was reading an article a few days ago about someone doing spiral breeding with 7 different roosters in rotation! Exactly the same idea as you have quoted above though just more time between a rooster or his son coming back to the same pen.

Interesting how line breeding and spiral breeding are both forms of inbreeding meant to reduce the risk of inbreeding depression but still reap the benefits.  I am seriously considering trying the spiral breeding method on my EOs.


Raising red cuckoo (marraduna) Euskal Oiloak and self blue (lavender) & black Belgian Bearded d'Uccles.

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#22 2012-01-22 23:01:42

Susan
Administrator
From: Saskatoon, Sask, Canada
Registered: 2011-06-28
Posts: 2540

Re: Topic 2: Genetics Terms and Definitions

I'm sorry guys. It has been a rough couple of days. I'll try to do it this evening!

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#23 2012-01-22 23:08:43

ChestnutRidge
Member
From: Western Virginia
Registered: 2011-07-05
Posts: 251
Website

Re: Topic 2: Genetics Terms and Definitions

May not be directly relavent, but this website http://kippenjungle.nl/basisEN.htm#basisEN (yeah, they have one of the color calculators) has a nice little chicken genetics 101.  I'd read it before but am going to read it again now...

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#24 2012-01-22 23:10:27

ChestnutRidge
Member
From: Western Virginia
Registered: 2011-07-05
Posts: 251
Website

Re: Topic 2: Genetics Terms and Definitions

Susan wrote:

I'm sorry guys. It has been a rough couple of days. I'll try to do it this evening!

I just saw your post about your horse.  :hug: I am sorry for your loss. :hug:

Take your time, and be sure to pamper yourself a bit! :wine:

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#25 2012-01-22 23:37:27

Susan
Administrator
From: Saskatoon, Sask, Canada
Registered: 2011-06-28
Posts: 2540

Re: Topic 2: Genetics Terms and Definitions

Allelle  One of the possible mutational states of a gene, distinguished from other alleles by its phenotypic effect.  There may be one, two or multiple alleles of a given gene and they may be dominant or recessive. For example, say there are two alleles for leg colour: Y (yellow) and  and y (white). Any bird that has YY or Yy will show yellow legs because Y will always be expressed (the phenotypic effect) over y (white) All yy will be white legged (homozygous recessive). 

Autosomal  Autosomal Chromosomes are all chromosomes that are not the sex chromosomes (X and Y) Therefore Autosomal means the characteristics of an organism found on one of the chromosomes that are NOT the sex chromosomes.

Chromosome A long linear, structure of DNA (deoxyribose nucleic acid) organized into genes. Basically the "map" of the organism. There are also regions on the chromosome which do not store any genetic information, the reason is not fully understood. 


Please also see:

http://forums.euskaloiloas.com/viewtopic.php?id=522

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